Organic Chemistry

Geometrical Isomerism & Optical Isomerism

Learn bond fission mechanism, electrophile and nucleophile, inductive effect, mesomeric effect, and hyperconjugation in organic chemistry.

4 minutes long
Posted by Tushar Agarwal, 10/6/2021
Geometrical Isomerism & Optical Isomerism

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There are some basic principles of organic chemistry that mainly include fission of covalent bonds, types of species based on relative electronegativity strength, electron displacement effects, and isomerism. Earlier, we had discussed the Inductive effect, Mesomeric effect, Electromeric effect, and Hyperconjugation effect. In this article, we will start our discussion with geometrical isomerism, optical isomerism, and structural isomerism.

What is Stereoisomerism?

Stereoisomerism is observed when a compound or a molecule has the same formula but a different spatial arrangement (3-Dimensional). The atoms are oriented differently in these structures called stereoisomers.

They are of two types:

  • Geometrical Isomerism
  • Optical Isomerism

What is Geometrical Isomerism?

  • It is also known by cis-trans isomerism.
  • It is observed when atoms are differently oriented about a doubly bonded carbon atom.
Cis-trans structure
Geometrical isomerism

What is Optical Isomerism?

  • A compound is said to exhibit optical isomerism when its mirror image is non-superimposable on it.
  • These optical isomers are called enantiomers.
  • They differ from each other in their optical activity.
Mirror image is non-superimposable for optically active compound.
Optical Isomerism

What is Structural Isomerism?

  • Structural isomerism is also known as constitutional isomerism.
  • Functional groups and atoms are linked differently in these structures. They are called constitutional isomers.
  • As functional groups and order are different, these isomers have different IUPAC names.

Different types of Stereo Isomerism:

  • Chain Isomerism
  • Position Isomerism
  • Functional Isomerism
  • Metamerism

Chain Isomerism

  • They are also known as skeletal isomerism.
  • These isomers differ in their carbon chain structure.
Chain Isomerism in Methyl Pentane
Chain Isomerism

Position Isomerism

  • The positions of functional groups or constituents differ in this kind of isomerism.
  • Basically, functional groups are attached to different carbons.
Positional Isomerism in chlorobutane
Positional Isomerism

Functional Isomerism

  • They are compounds with the same chemical formula but with different functional groups.
Functional isomerism
Functional Isomerism

Metamerism

  • This kind of isomerism is observed when there are different alkyl groups on either side of isomeric structures.
  • It is a rare type of isomerism that requires a divalent atom such as O and S. They have the same chemical formula but different constituent alkyl groups on either side.
Metamerism
Metamerism

You May Also Like

  1. Inductive Effect; Electrophile & Nucleophile – Organic Chemistry
  2. Mesomeric Effect and Electromeric Effect
  3. Hyperconjugation Effect – Organic Chemistry
  4. Geometrical Isomerism & Optical Isomerism

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