As we know, there is huge diversity on Earth. Each and every group of organisms reproduce, for the stabilization of their population. In this article, we will learn about reproduction, how it takes place in algae, especially. Moreover, we will learn the examples of different classes of algae and how they reproduce.
Author – Parisa Gupta
What is reproduction?
“Reproduction is defined as the biological process by which organisms are able to produces the copies of themselves in the form of young ones or offspring.”
Reproduction is crucial to the continuation of life. It is essential for all the living organisms which are present on earth. For instance, the smallest to the largest organism reproduce so that their population could be able to survive. Let us learn about it more.
Reproduction in algae
In Algae, there are three methods of reproduction namely vegetative method, asexual method, and sexual method. Let us learn more about it one by one.
Vegetative Reproduction in Algae:
The vegetative method of reproduction is processed by the body parts which give rise to the new part like fragmentation where each fragment develops into a new thallus.
Asexual Reproduction in Algae:
Asexual reproduction is by the production of flagellate zoospores which give rise to the new plant after germination.
Sexual Reproduction in Algae:
Sexual reproduction leads to the production of two types of gametes male gamete and female gamete and the fusion of these two gametes takes place in this type of reproduction.
Furthermore, female gamete in the algae is large and non-motile while male gametes are small and motile.
In addition, gametes are isogamous or anisogamous depending on the size. If the gametes are similar in size they are termed as isogamous and if they are different in size then they are termed as anisogamous.
Classification of Algae and their Type of Reproduction
There are three main classes of algae on the basis of pigments present in the different classes of algae:
- Chlorophyceae (green algae)
- Phaeophyceae (brown algae)
- Rhodophyceae (red algae)
You must note, in all the classes of algae, vegetative reproduction takes place only by fragmentation.
Reproduction in Chlorophyceae
In green algae (Chlorophyceae), asexual reproduction is by zoospores and sexual can be isogamous, anisogamous, or oogamous depending upon the species. The gametes can be flagellated and similar in size as found in Chlamydomonas. Moreover, non-flagellated and similar as found in Spirogyra.
For example, Chlamydomonas, Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Volvox, and Chara.
Reproduction in Phaeophyceae
In brown algae (Phaeophyceae), asexual reproduction might take place by biflagellated zoospores and sexual reproduction can be isogamous, anisogamous, or oogamous depending upon the species. The gametes are pyriform, and the union of gametes takes place in water within the oogonium. The fusion of large non-motile female gamete with small and motile male gamete is termed oogamous and it is commonly found in Volvox, Fucus.
For example, Dictyota, Ectocarpus, Laminaria, Sargassum, and Fucus.
Reproduction in Rhodophyceae
In red algae (Rhodophyceae), asexual reproduction occurs by non-motile spores and sexual reproduction occurs by non-motile gametes. Reproduction is oogamous.
For example, Polysiphonia, Porphyra, Gracilaria, and Gelidium.
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