As we all know, reproduction is necessary for the continuation of life. Organisms reproduce to give rise to their offspring which are similar to them. Also, there are various types and each type has its own advantages, process, and importance. Let us know about reproduction and its type. Furthermore, we will learn about the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction.
Author – Parisa Gupta
What is reproduction?
Life, as we know, is a cycle of birth, growth, and death. In this cycle, reproduction plays an important part.
“Reproduction is a biological process which allows an organism to produce their young ones (offspring) that are similar to themself.”
However, different organisms reproduce through different mode of reproduction.
Types of Reproduction:
There are two major types of reproduction:
- Asexual reproduction
- Sexual reproduction
What is Asexual Reproduction?
“Asexual reproduction is the type of reproduction, which does not include the formation of gamete and the union of males and females.”
This implies that only one parent can give rise to many numbers of offspring. Consequently, the offsprings produced are not only identical to one another but are also exact copies of their parent.
Further, there are various types of asexual reproduction as well. For instance: Amoeba shows binary fission, and yeast shows budding.
Also, asexual reproduction in plants is unambiguously termed vegetative reproduction. In vegetative reproduction, the vegetative propagules are the main component. In this type of reproduction different plants grow from their different part. For example, potato grows from the tuber, Ginger grows from a rhizome, and Rose grows from stem cuttings, Bryophyllum grows from leaves.
Advantages of Asexual Reproduction
There are various advantages of asexual reproduction, such as:
- In this process, there is no requirement of two parents.
- The process of asexual reproduction is fast, as a result, consumes less time.
- Produces huge number of organisms in very less time.
- It is energy efficient.
- It can exploit suitable environment quickly. Also, it occurs in various environments.
Disadvantages of Asexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction has some disadvantages as well, such as:
- It allows limited genetic variation in the population.
- The population is vulnerable to environmental changes.
- Since there is no genetic variation, as a result, diseases are likely to affect the entire population.
What is Sexual Reproduction?
We define sexual reproduction as:
“It is the type of reproduction, which involves the formation and the fusion of male and female gametes. Consequently, leading to the formation of a zygote which further develops into new organisms.“
Sexual reproduction examples: It occurs in human beings, animals, birds, insects, reptiles, and in higher plants. Here, all organisms reach a certain stage of growth and maturity in their life, before they can reproduce sexually which is called the juvenile phase. It is called the vegetative phase in plants. However, this phase differs in durations from organism to organism.
Advantages of Sexual Reproduction
- It increases the chances of variation among the offspring. Moreover, it increases the chances of survival as the variations arise at the genetic level.
- The variations among the offspring leads to the good quality of breeds and species of animals as well as plants.
- It promotes the chances of evolution in sexually reproducing species.
- Offspring produced by sexual reproduction are different genotypically as well as phenotypically from their parents.
- Species that are produced by sexual reproduction can adapt to the new environment more quickly as compared to the species which are produced by asexual reproduction.
Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction
There are some disadvantages of sexual reproduction, such as:
- Sexual reproduction consumes time and energy.
- It becomes a difficult process for the isolated members of the species.
- It only produces small populations.
Advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction
Now that we know the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction, you must wonder what are the advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction? They are, as follows:
- Sexual reproduction provides diversity in the genetic makeup of the individuals, whereas asexual reproduction can not.
- In sexual reproduction both the parents are involved to produce an offspring, thus, the newly formed individuals have the characters of both the parents. This can not be achieved in asexual reproduction, because only one parent forms the daughter cells.
- The genetic variations in sexual reproduction help the individuals to adapt to different environments, whereas, asexual reproduction shows no genetic variation.
With this, we come to the end of the article. Check our Study Materials for other subjects to enhance your preparations. Happy learning! 🙂
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