Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination Questions and Answers

The regulation of the blood glucose level represents an important feedback loop in the hu man body After a meal the blood glucose level becomes elevated stimulating beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin into the blood Excess glucose is then converted to glycogen in the liver reducing blood glucose levels Which of the following represents the stimulus in this feedback loop A B C D conversion of glucose into glycogen release of insulin by the pancreas elevation of the blood glucose level decrease in the blood glucose level
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
The regulation of the blood glucose level represents an important feedback loop in the hu man body After a meal the blood glucose level becomes elevated stimulating beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin into the blood Excess glucose is then converted to glycogen in the liver reducing blood glucose levels Which of the following represents the stimulus in this feedback loop A B C D conversion of glucose into glycogen release of insulin by the pancreas elevation of the blood glucose level decrease in the blood glucose level
Hormones are chemical signaling molecules produced by specialized cells and transmitted via the circulatory system to all other cells in the body Which of the following describes a condition that needs to be met for a target cell to re ceive the signaling molecules A B D The size and shape of the target cell needs to be similar to that of the cell that secreted the hormone The target cell needs to have sufficient ATP to transport the hormone into the cell The location of the target cell needs to be within the local region of the cell that secreted the hormone The cytosol of the target cell has to have receptors that recognize and bind the hormone
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
Hormones are chemical signaling molecules produced by specialized cells and transmitted via the circulatory system to all other cells in the body Which of the following describes a condition that needs to be met for a target cell to re ceive the signaling molecules A B D The size and shape of the target cell needs to be similar to that of the cell that secreted the hormone The target cell needs to have sufficient ATP to transport the hormone into the cell The location of the target cell needs to be within the local region of the cell that secreted the hormone The cytosol of the target cell has to have receptors that recognize and bind the hormone
A certain peptide hormone is produced in the anterior pituitary gland located at the base of the mammalian brain The hormone targets specific cells in many parts of the body Which of the following best explains a possible mechanism that would allow the hormone to reach all of the target cells in the body A B C D The hormone is released into the bloodstream where it is transported to all cells with the correct receptors The hormone interacts with neurons at the base of the brain and directs signals to the target cells through the neuronal network The hormone moves through plasmodesmata between cells until it has reached all cells with the correct intracellular binding sites The hormone diffuses into target cells adjacent to the anterior pituitary gland and dif fuses through their cell membrane
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
A certain peptide hormone is produced in the anterior pituitary gland located at the base of the mammalian brain The hormone targets specific cells in many parts of the body Which of the following best explains a possible mechanism that would allow the hormone to reach all of the target cells in the body A B C D The hormone is released into the bloodstream where it is transported to all cells with the correct receptors The hormone interacts with neurons at the base of the brain and directs signals to the target cells through the neuronal network The hormone moves through plasmodesmata between cells until it has reached all cells with the correct intracellular binding sites The hormone diffuses into target cells adjacent to the anterior pituitary gland and dif fuses through their cell membrane
15 Which ion channels are open during depolarization phase Voltage gated K channels Ligand gated Na channels
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
15 Which ion channels are open during depolarization phase Voltage gated K channels Ligand gated Na channels
A gust of wind blows a leaf into the water Which spheres are interacting 1 Point geosphere atmosphere and biosphere
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
A gust of wind blows a leaf into the water Which spheres are interacting 1 Point geosphere atmosphere and biosphere
2 Adrenaline stimulates glycogen breakdown in skeletal muscle cells by ultimately activating glycogen phosphorylase the enzyme that breaks down glycogen to release glucose as depicted in the figure below A Provide a step by step explanation of the signaling pathway that communicates the extracellular signal into the cell and eventually triggers glycogen adrenergic receptor breakdown activated GPCR You do not need to write complete sentences Bullet points are encouraged B Identify all the steps in this pathway where the signal is amplified C Based on the signaling pathway shown on the previous page indicate whether the following statements are true or false Explain why the false statements are incorrect adrenaline Wil 1 A mutant form of the G protein a subunit that cannot bind GTP will increase the activation of PKA inactive phosphorylase kinase 2 A mutant form of GPCR that is always active in skeletal muscle cells would increase the amount of phosphorylated glycogen phosphorylase activated adenylyl cyclase inactive PKA ATP CAMP 10 ADP activated a subunit of stimulatory G protein G active PKA inactive glycogen phosphorylase GTP P ATP cyclic AMP ATP ADP active CYTOSOL phosphorylase kinase active glycogen phosphorylase GLYCOGEN BREAKDOWN 3 A mutant form of PKA that is always active in skeletal muscle cells would lead to a decrease in the amount of glucose available 4 A Compound B is a molecule with a very high affinity for cyclic AMP it binds tightly to any cyclic AMP available in the cell preventing it from interacting with other substrates Addition of Compound B to skeletal muscle cells leads to an excess in the amount of glycogen available
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
2 Adrenaline stimulates glycogen breakdown in skeletal muscle cells by ultimately activating glycogen phosphorylase the enzyme that breaks down glycogen to release glucose as depicted in the figure below A Provide a step by step explanation of the signaling pathway that communicates the extracellular signal into the cell and eventually triggers glycogen adrenergic receptor breakdown activated GPCR You do not need to write complete sentences Bullet points are encouraged B Identify all the steps in this pathway where the signal is amplified C Based on the signaling pathway shown on the previous page indicate whether the following statements are true or false Explain why the false statements are incorrect adrenaline Wil 1 A mutant form of the G protein a subunit that cannot bind GTP will increase the activation of PKA inactive phosphorylase kinase 2 A mutant form of GPCR that is always active in skeletal muscle cells would increase the amount of phosphorylated glycogen phosphorylase activated adenylyl cyclase inactive PKA ATP CAMP 10 ADP activated a subunit of stimulatory G protein G active PKA inactive glycogen phosphorylase GTP P ATP cyclic AMP ATP ADP active CYTOSOL phosphorylase kinase active glycogen phosphorylase GLYCOGEN BREAKDOWN 3 A mutant form of PKA that is always active in skeletal muscle cells would lead to a decrease in the amount of glucose available 4 A Compound B is a molecule with a very high affinity for cyclic AMP it binds tightly to any cyclic AMP available in the cell preventing it from interacting with other substrates Addition of Compound B to skeletal muscle cells leads to an excess in the amount of glycogen available
Choose the sentence that has no problem in agreement.
The new regulations implemented at the university was confusing.
There are numerous ways in which Washington is different from New York.
Tennis is a game which require good eye-hand coordination and stamina.
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
Choose the sentence that has no problem in agreement. The new regulations implemented at the university was confusing. There are numerous ways in which Washington is different from New York. Tennis is a game which require good eye-hand coordination and stamina.
While innate immunity ______ , adaptive immunity ________

is adapted to handle a specific antigen; is present at birth
attacks a broad range of microbes; attacks specific microbes
is slower to respond; is faster to respond
includes the 3rd line of defense; includes the 1st and 2nd lines of defense
is inducible; is always present
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
While innate immunity ______ , adaptive immunity ________ is adapted to handle a specific antigen; is present at birth attacks a broad range of microbes; attacks specific microbes is slower to respond; is faster to respond includes the 3rd line of defense; includes the 1st and 2nd lines of defense is inducible; is always present
A ligand:
binds selectively to specific target receptors
binds to the intracellular side of the receptor protein
has the same effect at each type of receptor it binds to
is part of the last step involved in signal transduction
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
A ligand: binds selectively to specific target receptors binds to the intracellular side of the receptor protein has the same effect at each type of receptor it binds to is part of the last step involved in signal transduction
Thermoregulation in the human may be carried out by
the action of certain hormones (ie epinephrine) which affect metabolic rates.
muscular activity.
vasodilation and vasoconstriction of surface blood vessels.
All of the above are correct.
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
Thermoregulation in the human may be carried out by the action of certain hormones (ie epinephrine) which affect metabolic rates. muscular activity. vasodilation and vasoconstriction of surface blood vessels. All of the above are correct.
Which of the following is not considered to be a component of the endocrine system?
pituitary gland
adrenal gland
gastric gland
thyroid gland
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
Which of the following is not considered to be a component of the endocrine system? pituitary gland adrenal gland gastric gland thyroid gland
Which of the following statements regarding chemical signals is FALSE?
a) Hormones are the only types of signal molecules found in the human body.
b) Ligands act as chemical signals by binding to receptors on target cells.
c) Chemical signals travel to target cells to coordinate physiological responses.
d) Signal molecules transmit information from one cell to another.
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
Which of the following statements regarding chemical signals is FALSE? a) Hormones are the only types of signal molecules found in the human body. b) Ligands act as chemical signals by binding to receptors on target cells. c) Chemical signals travel to target cells to coordinate physiological responses. d) Signal molecules transmit information from one cell to another.
A hormone which is secreted from an endocrine and whose target is an endocrine gland is called:
None of the answers above are correct
A second messenger
A tropic hormone
An exocrine hormone
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
A hormone which is secreted from an endocrine and whose target is an endocrine gland is called: None of the answers above are correct A second messenger A tropic hormone An exocrine hormone
Which of the following are possible long term effects of diabetes?
Select all that apply.
A blindness
B heart disease
C kidney failure
D death
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
Which of the following are possible long term effects of diabetes? Select all that apply. A blindness B heart disease C kidney failure D death
Your roommate claims that he has been much more successful in getting attention from the opposite sex since he started adding a pheromone to his aftershave. What is the most likely explanation for this perceived increase in attention?
The pheromones do actually make him more attractive to the opposite sex. 
The additive allows for the pheromones to spread over a wider area and influence more people. 
He is producing higher levels sex pheromones naturally in response to the chemicals in the additive. 
The women he is meeting are using pheromone-laced perfume,which increasestheir socio-sexual behaviors. 
The placebo effect.
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
Your roommate claims that he has been much more successful in getting attention from the opposite sex since he started adding a pheromone to his aftershave. What is the most likely explanation for this perceived increase in attention? The pheromones do actually make him more attractive to the opposite sex. The additive allows for the pheromones to spread over a wider area and influence more people. He is producing higher levels sex pheromones naturally in response to the chemicals in the additive. The women he is meeting are using pheromone-laced perfume,which increasestheir socio-sexual behaviors. The placebo effect.
Lucia is anxious about delivering her first speech. Which of the following is a typical response to fear?
Hands may feel sweaty or clammy.
Heart rate increases, raising blood pressure.
Butterfly feeling in stomach.
Trembling voice.
All of the above are typical responses to fear.
Biology
Human Physiology - Chemical Coordination
Lucia is anxious about delivering her first speech. Which of the following is a typical response to fear? Hands may feel sweaty or clammy. Heart rate increases, raising blood pressure. Butterfly feeling in stomach. Trembling voice. All of the above are typical responses to fear.